Pre-Solo Syllabus

Phase

Flight Num.

Maneuvers

Tow Alt.

1

1

Introduce and explain: Controls and their function, wing, angle of attack, shallow turns, speed control, use of trim, aileron drag, yaw string

3,000’

 

2

Introduce and explain:  Pre-take off check list, Stability; roll, pitch and yaw -more turning practice, Observe other aircraft

3,000’

 

3

Turns to a point, straight glides to a point, attitude and speed control in turns

3,000’

2

4,5,6

Ground handling, aero tow, shallow, medium and steep turns to a point.  More straight glides to a point, attitude and speed control in turns

3,000’

 

7

Introduction to MCA, forward stalls, reduced G

3,000’

 

8

Preflight, including assembly and disassembly of make and model being flown, aero tow, forward stalls, more turns to a point. Landing, with instructor using spoilers.

3,000’

3

9

Take-off, explain 200’, aero tow, review air work, stalls in turning flight, TLAR demonstration and explanation of pattern entry and landing.

3,000’

 

10-15

Take-off, 200’, review air work, turns at MCA, stalls in turning flight, TLAR pattern and landing

3,000’

 

16

Take-off, 200’, unusual attitudes, pattern and landing

 

 

17-19

Pattern tows; X wind take-off and landings, and Right hand patterns, when weather permits

1,500’

 

20

Forward rope break

 

 

21

300’ rope break down wind landing

 

 

22-25

Pattern tows, test/review on knowledge of signals on aero tow

1,500’

 

26

Review air work, turns at MCA, stalls in turning flight including spirals, TLAR pattern and landing.

3,000’

 

27-30

Pattern tows, unusual or blown approaches to landing Including descents with minimal turns, in high drag configuration

1,500’

 

31

Review air work, turns at MCA, stalls in turning flight with partial spoilers deployed, and forward slips, at altitude, with spoilers deployed TLAR pattern and landing.

3,000’

 

32-35

Pattern tows, forward slip on final approach to landing. Pre-solo written text, including parts 61 & 91.  Use of radio.

1,500’

 


Post Solo Syllabus

 

Flight Num.

Maneuvers

1

Unassisted take off, review flight at MCA, normal pattern and landing for the day.

2

Review stalls, spot landing, and simulated short field landing.  Use of flaps for take-off and landing

3

Review X wind take-off and landing as weather permits.

4

Off airport landing techniques, and pitfalls.  Simulated off airport landing at north end of runway, short field landing over obstacle

5

Accuracy landing without altimeter, (review use of forward slip on approach).

6

Cross-controlled stalls, introduction to spins, (L-23 / Lark).

7

Low tow, box prop wash

8

Review unusual or blown approaches to landing

9

Review cross controlled stalls, MCA, and review off airport landing techniques

 


 

Pre Solo Training

Preflight, surface ops, towline inspection.

Students shall be taught the proper use of the preflight checklist and explain it's importance. They will also be taught proper ground handling - where to pull/push the glider as well as how to clean a glider and prepare it for flight. Students should be instructed never to leave a glider unattended and to make sure the canopy is closed and latched. Instruct your student to always visually check the towline before it is attached to the glider, looking for frays, cuts and knots in the rope.

Signals, ground and in flight

Students will be taught the Standard American Soaring Signals

Assembly & disassembly.

Use the 1-26 manual to show your student the pins that are commonly removed when the glider is trailered. Make sure your student understands the need and duties of the 4 people required to assemble/disassemble a 1-26.

Pitch, roll, yaw, adverse yaw

Students will be taught smooth coordinated control of the glider in all 3 axis. Demonstrate pitch control and its relationship to speed control before teaching roll control. Once a student is comfortable with rolling the glider into a turn (while you control the rudder) introduce yaw and coordinated turns. Make sure your student can tell the difference between a slip and a skid. Explain the hazards of skids and the proper use of slips. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Precision turns.

Students should be able to roll out within 5 degrees of a predetermined heading. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Point to point, speed to fly.

Provide the student with the basic idea of speeding up in sink and slowing down in lift. Use the 5 MPH rule of thumb for every 100 FPM down over the standard 200 FPM of sink in the 2-33. Explain to the students that speed to fly is really an adjustment of the best L/D speed. This can be easily demonstrated using the aircraft polar.

Slow flight.

Slow flight should be conducted at the verge of stall. If the student wants to take the aircraft up to stall to find that precise attitude and speed this is fine, provided they don't stall the aircraft for the remainder of the slow flight demonstration. Once a stable slow flight condition has been established, have the student make a 90-degree turn, remaining in slow flight. Caution the student on steepness of bank and the application of controls not to exceed the critical angle of attack (use of rudder to lift a falling wing rather than aileron). Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Steep turns.

Steep turns should be made at a bank angle between 45 and 60 degrees. Speed shouldn't deviate more than 10 MPH through the turn. Emphasize bank and pitch control via visual reference to the horizon. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Stall series, straight.

Clearing turns must be made prior to initiating any stall maneuver. This can be accomplished with 2 steeply banked 90-degree turns (1 in each direction) or a single turn of 180 degrees or more. Have the student pull the nose of the glider up to maintain an attitude where their feet are on the horizon. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the controls to gain airspeed, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

Stall series, turning

The student must perform the same clearing maneuvers as mention above prior to attempting turning stalls. Have the student place the glider in a shallow bank (5 to 10 degrees is plenty). Then have the student pull the nose up to an attitude where their feet are on the horizon, all the while maintaining the bank angle. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the stick to gain airspeed and apply opposite ruder to stop rotation, then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

Collision, wind shear, & wake turbulence avoidance.

 

Pre-launch checklist

Make sure the student uses the pre-launch checklist prior to every flight

Altimeter & Trim - set
Belts - fastened (make sure they check the back seat as well).
 Controls - freedom of movement and clear of obstructions.
Cable - checked and connected.
Canopy - closed, latched and verified.
Direction -of wind - noted.
Emergency procedures - (at a minimum) landing straight ahead below 200 feet, turns can be made above 100 feet and at 200 feet up to two 90-degree turns are permissible, meaning a return to the airport may be possible.

Normal launch.

Emphasize the importance of keeping the wings level and staying directly behind the tow plane. Have the student place the glider in a normal flight attitude and wait for the aircraft to become airborne. Don't let them yank the stick back to get off the ground too soon. Once airborne, the student should remain 2 - 5 feet off the ground (no higher) until the tow plane lifts off. The student should rise with the tow plane remaining in the high tow position.

Tow.

Begin teaching the tow by letting the student fly for 10 seconds, then you take control regardless of how well they are doing. This will give them time to relax, then repeat the drill, gradually increasing the time the student flies the airplane. Teach your student to maintain a constant position behind the tow plane with its landing gear on the horizon. Rather than fixating on the tow plane, have your student look beyond the tow plane to the horizon, keeping the tow plane in visual reference. Explain that you are 200 feet behind the tow plane and at normal towing speeds, that is about 1.5 seconds, so that when they see tow plane move, we will do the same thing in about 1.5 seconds as well. Emphasize that we need to maintain the same bank angle as the tow plane, particularly in turns. While turning, the towrope should draw a straight line through the middle of the tow plane. Before releasing from the tow, the student will clear both left and right. A level or climbing right turn will be made upon release (look out for students who want to dive, or go straight).

Landing checklist

Students are required to always using the pre-landing checklist.

Undercarriage –down and locked

Speed –correct airspeed for landing pattern for conditions

Trim –trim for this airspeed

Air Brakes –check for operation

Look –check traffic pattern and runway for conflicts

Land –Land the aircraft at the selected target

Pattern speeds.

Students should have learned from reading Glider Basics that the pattern is flown at best L/D speed plus a safety factor. Given that, the minimum speed at which the pattern should be flown in a L-13 is 55 MPH

Traffic patterns.

Students are taught standard traffic patterns with entry at the IP to Downwind, Base and Final legs. The standard pattern flown is listed in the Standard Operating Procedures.

TLAR technique..

This is straightforward and taught straight from the Glider Basics text

Normal Landing.

Normal Landings will be made on runway 18. After landing, rollout will straightforward. Don't roll of the runway unless there are safety considerations.

Thermal technique.

Describe the dynamics of a thermal to your student paying particular attention to both the lift and sink generated. Students should be made aware that it is easier to make adjustments to core a thermal if they can maintain a constant speed and bank angle. Emphasize that these should be maintained be visual reference to the horizon, not the instruments. To make the most advantage of the thermals energy, the glider should be flown at minimum sink speed. Make sure the student understands that as bank angle increases so does the minimum sink speed.

Ridge technique.

Describe the dynamics of a ridge lift to your student paying particular attention to the location both the lift and sink generated. Emphasize all turns are made away from the ridge and faster gliders should pass slower gliders between the slower glider and the ridge. Since there is obviously wind, make sure the student is aware of the wind direction and how it will affect his return to the airport.

Wave technique.

Describe the dynamics of a wave to your student paying particular attention to both the lift and sink generated.

Demo spin.

While not required by the FAA, all GHSA students are required to experience a spin before they solo. Most importantly, the student should recognize the conditions that lead to a spin. Secondly, we don't want them to panic if they ever are in a spin, so make this fun. Since we have a victor airway that runs down the middle of the valley, spins need to be conducted back over the Ortega's. This will necessitate a high tow, so make the most of it - do several spins. Make sure the student understands that while you have to force a L-13 to spin dual, it spins rather nicely solo!

X wind launch, wing down.

With a wing down launch the student should apply full sick and rudder in order to pickup the down wing quickly. Once the wing is up, care should be taken to maintain position behind the tow plane and not allow the glider to drift down wind.

Tailwind landing.

First, students should be made aware that when possible landing into the wind is preferable to a downwind landing. Make sure the student is aware that after touchdown control authority will be lost at a higher ground speed, necessitating good control of the glider and a quick stop. There is a tendency for the student to want to slow the glider down since their eye are telling them they are going too fast. Watch to make sure they maintain their airspeed.

Slips to landing.

It works best to introduce students to slips while at altitude. Get them used to the way the glider feels and sounds. Get them to where they can smoothly transition form normal flight to a slip and back to normal flight. Once they are familiar with slips, then have them do it on final. Watch to make sure they don't stall the glider.

Emergency landing options.

Early in a student's training, have them look back at the airport as you fly the takeoff and ask them to identify land-able areas. It won't be long until one day there will be another airplane in the runway, or the glider is not on the glider slope, or the winds are just too high. Before this happens explain to the student how we can land the glider in the areas they have identified and show them other options they may not have noticed.

Full spoiler landing.

After a student has mastered normal landings and is comfortable with TLAR, it's time to lock the spoilers open on them when they do their pre-landing checklist. As the student is coming in to land, ask them if you look too high or too low. find out when they plan on making the turn to base and final. Chances are they will do fine, but be ready to offer timely advice on how to get back.

No spoiler landing.

After a student has made a few slips to landing, it's time to "jam the spoilers closed" when they do their pre-landing checklist. Glide path control should be handled by slipping the glider. The pattern can be extended if need be, but the student should stay pretty close to a normal approach.

Rope Break.

The student's first action should be to drop the nose to maintain airspeed. Then a coordinated 45-degree turn back to the airport should be executed. A normal landing (probably down wind) will then be made.

Wave Off.

Students should readily notice the wing wag of the tow plane and release. Special vigilance should be given to avoid the towrope and giving the tow plane the room it needs (they're probably going to turn back to the airport).

Rudder Wag "something's wrong".

This is best accomplished before giving the Wave Off. Some "old time" students will release thinking this is a wave off. The first thing the student should check is if the spoilers are deployed, then a systematic check of other systems.

Box Wake.

The student should be able to demonstrate control of the glider on tow by boxing the wake. The box is started by transitioning from the high to low tow position (the horizontal stabilizer will be even with the wing struts on a Ag Wagon), then back up to high tow. The student will then smoothly maneuver the glider to one side or the other until the tail wheel of the tow plane is visually outside the main wheel. The student will then drop to the low tow position while remaining in the outside of the wake. Once in the low tow position, the student will maneuver to the other side of the wake so that the tail wheel is again outside the other main wheel. Now the student can come up to the high tow position while remaining outside the wake. Now it's a simple as easing control pressure to allow the glider to return to the normal high tow position.

Over wire pattern.

If the winds are less than 10 MPH favoring runway 18, it's time for an over the wires pattern. This is a conventional left hand pattern with the base leg flown directly over the wires on Hi-way 36. Your touch down point is the runway thresh-hold. Have no fear, someone will bring the car out and drag you back.

Aircraft Radio Procedures.

It's a good idea to get the student using the radio early in their training. That way they it's not as big a distraction. The Basic Aircraft Radio Procedures and Operations Lesson Plan will help teach the student the proper radio procedures for use in the Houston area.

Silent Pattern

The Silent Patter is the last flight before solo. Basically, the instructor is a fly on the wall and shouldn't have to say anything. If you do, it's time for some more dual instruction before trying another Silent Pattern.

Post Solo training

Rope Break.

The student's first action should be to drop the nose to maintain airspeed. Then a coordinated 45-degree turn back to the airport should be executed. A normal landing (probably down wind) will then be made.

Wave Off.

Students should readily notice the wing wag of the tow plane and release. Special vigilance should be given to avoid the towrope and giving the tow plane the room it needs (they're probably going to turn back to the airport).

Box Wake.

The student should be able to demonstrate control of the glider on tow by boxing the wake. The box is started by transitioning from the high to low tow position (the horizontal stabilizer will be even with the wing struts on an Ag Wagon), then back up to high tow. The student will then smoothly maneuver the glider to one side or the other until the tail wheel of the tow plane is visually outside the main wheel. The student will then drop to the low tow position while remaining in the outside of the wake. Once in the low tow position, the student will maneuver to the other side of the wake so that the tail wheel is again outside the other main wheel. Now the student can come up to the high tow position while remaining outside the wake. Now it's a simple as easing control pressure to allow the glider to return to the normal high tow position.

Slack Line Drill.

Slack line recovery can be practiced on many flights, especially in the afternoon when lift is strong and slack line is likely to occur. Since slack line occurs anytime the glider is traveling faster than the tow plane, the main objective is to safely slow down the glider and not break the rope. This can be accomplished by yawing the gliders nose away from the tow plane and in extreme circumstances the application of spoilers is appropriate. Keep in mind that anytime the belly of the slack gets even with the cockpit, you must release to maintain safety.

Slow Flight.

Slow flight should be conducted at the verge of stall. If the student wants to take the aircraft up to stall to find that precise attitude and speed this is fine, provided they don't stall the aircraft for the remainder of the slow flight demonstration. Once a stable slow flight condition has been established, have the student make a 90-degree turn, remaining in slow flight. Caution the student on steepness of bank and the application of controls not to exceed the critical angle of attack (use of rudder to lift a falling wing rather than aileron). Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Stall Series, straight.

Clearing turns must be made prior to initiating any stall maneuver. This can be accomplished with 2 steeply banked 90-degree turns (1 in each direction) or a single turn of 180 degrees or more. Have the student pull the nose of the glider up to maintain an attitude where their feet are on the horizon. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the controls to gain airspeed, and then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

Stall Series, turning.

The student must perform the same clearing maneuvers as mention above prior to attempting turning stalls. Have the student place the glider in a shallow bank (5 to 10 degrees is plenty). Then have the student pull the nose up to an attitude where their feet are on the horizon, all the while maintaining the bank angle. Once the stall breaks, the student should immediately neutralize the stick to gain airspeed and apply opposite ruder to stop rotation, and then smoothly recover the aircraft without entering into a secondary stall.

Stall Series, straight with spoilers.

This is the same as straight stalls without spoilers with the exception that the glider will stall at a higher speed and the student will need to close the spoilers upon the break of the stall.

Stall Series, turning with spoilers.

This is the same as turning stalls without spoilers with the exception that the glider will stall at a higher speed and the student will need to close the spoilers upon the break of the stall.

Steep Turns.

Steep turns should be made at a bank angle between 45 and 60 degrees. Speed shouldn't deviate more than 5 MPH through the turn. Emphasize bank and pitch control via visual reference to the horizon. Always emphasize clearing before turning the glider.

Turning Slips in pattern.

At this stage the student should have already done slipping patterns so a slipping turn should be no problem. Be watchful for improper rudder usage that could lead to skids / spins. Speed control should also be emphasized.

Accuracy Landing.

The student will touch down smoothly within the designated landing area, with no appreciable drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with the desired landing path, stopping short of and within 200 feet of a designated point.

Solo Check ride, revalidation (30 or 90 day).

During any solo check ride or revalidation, the instructor will take the student through all the maneuvers required for the Practical Exam.

C Badge thermal, ridge & wave practice.

The student will demonstrate in solo flight the ability to soar at least 60 minutes in duration from release of a 2000-foot tow (add 1.5 minutes for each 100 feet above 2000).

C Badge simulated off field approach, no altimeter.

During a dual flight accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will demonstrate a simulated off-field approach without reference to the altimeter by either covering the altimeter, or adjusting the altimeter so that field elevation cannot be determined.

C Badge accuracy landing from approach.

During a dual flight accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will perform an accuracy landing from the approach, touching down and coming to a complete stop within an area no greater than 500 feet in length.

Bronze Solo accuracy Spot Landings.

The student will perform at least 3 solo spot landings witnessed by an SSA Instructor. The accuracy and distance parameters established should be based on glider performance data, current winds, runway surface and density altitude. As a guideline, a maximum distance of 400 feet would be acceptable for a L-13.

Bronze Accuracy Landings, no altimeter.

During a dual flights accompanied by an SSA Instructor, the student will perform at least 2 accuracy landings made without reference to the altimeter to simulate off-field landings by either covering the altimeter, or adjusting the altimeter so that field elevation cannot be determined.